Οδηγός για το διαδίκτυο Παιδαγωγικά  Γλώσσα Λογοτεχνία Κλασσική φιλολογία Ιστορία Υπερδεσμοί




5. Διεθνής ακτινοβολία του Βυζαντίου




a. The Byzantine diplomacy

All the states today are represented in the other countries with permanent diplomatic missions such as embassies and consulates. In that way they can face the problems existing between them. During the Middle Ages however every problem between two states was faced by an occasional mission of ambassadors. These ambassadors were nevertheless considered respectable persons and no one could hurt them.

The Byzantine state had used a very competent diplomacy in order to secure its safety and international power. The means that diplomacy used were the following:

- Frequent mission of ambassadors in foreign countries.

- Donations in foreign leaders

- Alliances often based on marriages

- Commercial treaties

- Christianization of other people.

Responsible for the foreign policy was the emperor. An officer called Λογοθέτης του Δρόμου was helping the emperor and was responsible for the formation of the missions as well as for the reception of the foreign ambassadors.

Υποστηρικτικό υλικό

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_diplomacy άρθρo της Wikipedia
περιλαμβάνει παραπομπές σε επιστημονικά άρθρα

Μια φανερή αλλά και σοβαρή περιοχή πολιτιστικής μεταβιβάσεως, που μέχρι σήμερα μόλις που έχει ερευνηθεί, είναι η πιθανή επιρροή της βυζαντινής πολιτικής τέχνης, και πιο συγκεκριμένα της διπλωματικής πράξης στη μεσαιωνική Δύση. Παρ’όλο που οι βυζαντινές διπλωματικές μέθοδοι είχαν πρωταρχικά πηγάσει, τουλάχιστον σε μέρος τους, από τη Ρώμη και την ελληνιστική Ανατολή, το βυζάντιο ανέπτυξε τη διπλωματία σ’ένα βαθμό λεπτότητας που είναι άγνωστος αλλού στη μεσαιωνική περίοδο. Συντάχτηκαν μερικές βυζαντινές πραγματείες, που καταγίνονται σε μέρος τους ή ολόκληρες με την διπλωματία και την πολιτική (η «Έκθεσις της βασιλείου τάξεως» του αυτοκράτορα Κωνσταντίνον του Ζ' του Πορφυρογέννητον είναι ίσως το πιο σημαντικό παράδειγμα), και που δίνουν λεπτομερείς οδηγίες, οι οποίες στηρίζονται στη θεωρία και την πείρα για τους καταλληλότερους τρόπους για να χειριστούν τις πιο δύσκολες πολιτικές καταστάσεις. Η Βενετία, που οι σχέσεις της με το Βυζάντιο ήταν πάντα στενώτερες από τις άλλες δυτικές δυνάμεις, φαίνεται πως επωφελήθηκε περισσότερο από το βυζαντινό παράδειγμα. Πραγματικά, μια σύγκριση της βυζαντινής και της ενετικής διπλωματικής πρακτικής στην ύστερη μεσαιωνική εποχή και στην Αναγέννηση -π.χ. η αποστολή από τους πρέσβεις περιοδικών αναφορών στην κυβέρνησή τους (relazioni) ή η οργάνωση της υπηρεσίας πληροφοριών- θ’αποκαλύψει κατά πάσα βεβαιότητα βυζαντινή, άμεση ή έμμεση, επιρροή σε όχι μικρό βαθμό. Πρέπει να θυμηθούμε πως η Βενετία από τον ΙΑ' και τον ΙΒ' αιώνα είχε μεγάλη παροικία στην ίδια την καρδιά της Κωνσταντινουπόλεως και πως αρκετά νωρίς σημαντικός αριθμός από Έλληνες είχε εγκατασταθεί στην Βενετία.
Κ. Ι. Γιαννακόπουλος Οι επιρροές της βυζαντινής παιδείας στο μεσαιωνικό δυτικό κόσμο
Από: Κ.Ι. Γιαννακόπουλος, Βυζαντινή Ανατολή και Λατινική Δύση, μτφρ. Κώστας Κυριαζής, εκδ. Εστία, Αθήναι ά.έ.

''Παρ' ότι ήταν οργανωμένος πλήρως για δράση και ο στρατός αλλά και ο στόλος των βυζαντινών, εν τούτοις προτιμούσαν να τον χρησιμοποιούν με φειδώ. Πριν από την απάντηση επί προβλήματος με τα όλπα δοκίμαζαν κάθε ειρηνικό μέσο και δει "δραστήρια διπλωματία" με απώτερο σκοπό τη δημιουργία προβλημάτων και ερίδων στον αντίπαλο και κέρδος στο χρόνο για την οργάνωση και εκπαίδευση νέων τμημάτωνΗ Βυζαντινή διπλωματία, ήταν έξυπνη αποβλέπουσα μακρυά και κατά κάποιον τρόπο, σε κάποιες εξαιρετικές περιπτώσεις, απέρριπτε τους ηθικούς φραγμούς. Από τη μεριά των βυζαντινών τηρούνταν πάντοτε με μεγάλη προσοχή οι συνθήκες που υπογράφονταν. Για το συμφέρον της αυτοκρατορίας αναλόγως την περίσταση- υποκινούσε άλλους λαούς εναντίον άλλων".
Στέφεν Ράνσιμαν ''Βυζαντινός Πολιτισμός '

b. The relations with the Arabs 

The conflicts between the Byzantines and the Arabs reached their peak during this period. The Byzantines suffered a great loss when the Arabs conquered the city of Thessalonica. After that the Byzantines took measures to reinforce their fleet. At the middle of the 10th century begun a period of great Byzantine victories:

    -General Ιωάννης Κουρκούας one of the larger generals of the middle ages managed to conquer the Syrian city of Edessa.

    -The regaining of Crete (961) and Cyprus (965) that resulted the limitation of the pirate activities of the Arabian fleet.

    -The big “military” emperors Νικηφόρος Φωκάς, Ιωάννης Τζιμισκής extended the Byzantine borders up to Syria and Palestine.

    -Kilikia and Syria that used to be important bases for the Arabic fleet became part of the Byzantine state.

The relations with the Arabs however were not always hostile. The two states often signed treaties in order to exchange captives or to develop their cultural and commercial relations.

Δείτε τις σχετικές σελίδες του ΙΜΕ www.fhw.gr/chronos/09/gr/p/610/main/p3c3.html (ελλ)

 c. The relations with the Bulgarians

The Christianization of the Bulgarians influenced their political and cultural development. Symeon, the successor of Voris made Preslava the new capital of the state and decorated it with magnificent buildings. At the same time works of the Byzantine literature were translated in the Slavic language and the Slavic religious literature begun to flourish.

With Symeon leader of the Bulgarians, a new period of tension between the Byzantines and the Bulgarians begun, since they both fought for the dominion in the Balkans. Symeon wanted to create a Byzantine-Bulgarian empire with him as an emperor so he changed the old Bulgarian title «χάνος» with the Byzantine title «βασιλεύς». On 913 he tried to conquer Constantinople but he failed so he negotiated with the patriarch. He, by giving his blessing, boosted Symeon’s morale authority. That, along with his victories against the Byzantines, made Symeon declare himself king of the Byzantines and the Bulgarians, title that the Byzantines never recognized.

On 924 Symeon tried once more to conquer Constantinople but he failed, since he had no fleet and his military power had weakened because of the battles with the Serbs and the Croatians.

After his death his successor Peter signed a peace treaty with the Byzantines, married the niece of the emperor Romanos Lekapinos and took the title that his father wanted so much: “king of Bulgaria”.

A few years later, on 976, the new leader of the Bulgarians Samuel founded a new Bulgarian state on the northwest Macedonia, a state that was expanded up to the Danube and on the south up to Central Greece.

The Byzantines were worried but at the beginning the emperor Basilios because of internal problems took only diplomatic measures. After a while however a period of great victories begun for the Byzantines.

997: the first military success against the Bulgarians on the area of Sperchios.

1014: the battle of Κλειδί  near the river Strymonas: the Bulgarians were completely defeated.

1018: Bulgaria became part of the Byzantine state.

Δείτε τις σχετικές σελίδες του ΙΜΕ (ελλ): www.fhw.gr/chronos/09/gr/p/610/main/p3d1.html

(Σκυλίτσης: Η ηγεμονίδα του Κιέβου Όλγα στην Κωνσταντινούπολη Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid)

d. The relation with the Russians.     

The Byzantine state was threatened many times by the Russians, but on the same time it developed commercial relations with the state of Kiev. Russian merchants and ambassadors visited Byzantium in order to exchange their products (furs, slaves) with the famous Byzantine silk clothes.

On the year 957 the princess of Kiev Olga visited Constantinople and it seems that then begun the second and final Christianization of the Russians. Officially the Christianization was completed at the end of the 10th century when the emperor Basilios the 2nd promised to marry his sister Anna with the Russian prince Vladimir if he and his nation were Christianized. Vladimir accepted and he was baptized in Hersona.

Through this marriage Russia gained international authority and all the goods of the Byzantine culture. Byzantine missionaries brought to Russia elements of social and political organization, institutions, the Byzantine art and culture. All these became the base of the Russian culture and tradition.

The Relations between Byzantium and Russia (11th-15th Century) Dimitri Obolensky, Oxford University

A. N. Mouravieff Introduction of Christianity into Russia (A.D. 988-1015) Conversion of Vladimir the Great

The Byzantine policy in Italy and the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.

Εmperor Nikiforos Fokas followed the policy of the previous emperors considering Italy. His aim was to protect the Byzantine provinces from the Arabs and to strengthen the Byzantine influence over the semi independent states of central Italy. After the coronation of Otto the First as emperor of the Romans ( 962) and the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire of the German State, these states became the “apple of discord” between the Byzantine state and the German Empire. Nikiforos refused to recognize Otto’s imperial title and demanded his withdrawal from the Byzantine territories. Both states exchanged ambassadors ( the most important mission was that of Lioutprand, bishop of Cremona). All the negotiations however failed and the ambassador returned to his country.
The relations, however, of the two empires were improved when emperor became Ioannis Tzimiskis and especially when Otto’s successor, Otto the Second, married the emperor’s niece,
Theofano. She brought the habits and the traditions of the Byzantine culture to the German court. The Italian territories, however, were finally lost for Byzantium when the Normans conquered them on 1071.

The Schism between the two churches

The Schism of 1054 made it easier for the Normans to conquer the Italian territories because it caused hostile attitude towards Byzantium and prevent the cooperation between Rome and Constantinople. The dispute that led to the Schism, begun from arguments relating theological and dogmatic matters, as Saturday’s fast, the celibacy of the clergy, the use of bread in the masses and especially the doctrine of the “ Filioque”. The basic reason, however, was that Rome wanted to be the major church in the Christian world, claim that Constantinople couldn’t accept.
The two leaders of the churches (Patriarch Michael Kiroularios and Cardinal Umberto) had great responsibilities for the failure of the negotiations in Constantinople. The conversations ended with mutual anathema. The people then didn’t pay much attention to the matter. His historic importance was recognized later and especially just before the conquer of Constantinople by the Turks.

Σχίσμα του 1054 από τη Βικιπαίδεια, την ελεύθερη εγκυκλοπαίδεια

The relations with Venice and Genoa

The Italian naval cities and especially Venice were developed during the 10th century and their relations with Byzantium became closer. The emperor Vasilios the Second made a commercial treaty with them with very good terms in order to reward Venice for carrying the Byzantine troops in Italy. With that treaty a period of privileges begun for the Venetian capital that became fatal for the empire’s interests in the future.



<----- Αρχική


Ιστορία Β΄Λυκείου
Κεντρικό μενού

Κεφάλαιο 2 - Ηράκλειος

3. Ισλάμ

4. Αραβικές κατακτήσεις

5. Εικονομαχία

6. Κοινωνία & Οικονομία

7. Σλάβοι και Βούλγαροι

8. Φράγκοι

Κεφάλαιο Β΄

Ακμή του Βυζ. κράτους

Διεθνής ακτινοβολία του Βυζαντίου









  terracomputerata AT gmail DOT com