Σλάβοι και Βούλγαροι
Οι σύγχρονοι Βούλγαροι είναι απόγονοι των πρωτοβούλγαρων,
ενός ημινομαδικού, αγροτικού και πολεμικού, τουρκόφωνου λαού
ο οποίος κατά τον 2ο αιώνα μετανάστευσε από την Κεντρική
Ασία στην περιοχή του Βόλγα στις βόρειες στέπες του Καυκάσου
και από εκεί εγκαταστάθηκε στη Βαλκανική χερσόνησο το 679,
και των σλαβικών φυλών που είχαν μετακινηθεί στα Βαλκάνια
τον προηγούμενο αιώνα.
Οι πρωτοβούλγαροι μαζί με τους Σλάβους, απορροφώντας και
διάφορα άλλα αυτόχθονα φύλα της περιοχής όπως οι Θράκες, οι
Δάκες και οι Γέτες, διαμόρφωσαν το Βουλγαρικό έθνος, το
οποίο είχε περισσότερα σλαβικά χαρακτηριστικά καθώς οι
Σλάβοι ήταν περισσότεροι και αυξήθηκαν δυσανάλογα,
αφομοιώνοντας γλωσσικά και πολιτιστικά τους πρωτοβούλγαρους,
οι οποίοι όμως έδωσαν το όνομά τους στο νέο αυτό έθνος.
Επίσης μέσα στο βουλγαρικό έθνος, αφομοιώθηκαν και άλλα φύλα
της περιοχής, δηλαδή Κουμάνοι, Πετσενέγκοι, Βλάχοι και
Άβαροι, τα οποία αφομοιώθηκαν πλήρως εκτός από έναν αριθμό
Βλάχων που διατηρούν την ιδιαίτερη κουλτούρα τους.
What does the term
In the peninsula of Emos it meant the permanent Slavic
In the Greek areas they constituted smaller or larger semi
independent areas with Slavic population.
During the 9th century these areas in the
northern-western part of the Emos peninsula developed to the first small
states of Serbia and Croatia. The development of these two states made it
easier for the Byzantines to turn them into Christians.
At the same time the areas in the southern part of the
peninsula were gradually embodied in the Byzantine administration. At the
beginning they were semi independed and they had to pay a subjection tax.
How the Bulgaric state was founded?
When Constantine D’ was emperor, the Bulgarians, people
coming from Asia, founded a state near the mouth of the Danube. The
Bulgarians managed to defeat the Byzantine army and they conquered the areas
between the Danube the mountain Emos and the Black Sea. Slavic tribes had
also entered the area so it was actually out of the Byzantine control. The
emperor recognized silently the new situation and promised donations in the
The treaty with the Bulgarians was renewed later and the
Bulgarians helped the emperor Leo the Third to face the Arab invaders in
front of Constantinople.
During the 8th century Constantine the Fifth tried
many expeditions against the Bulgarians in order to abolish their state. The
war was very difficult for the Bulgarians since they faced a major internal
political crisis. The crisis was due to the conflict between the political
party friendly to the Byzantines and the one against them. The old Bulgaric
aristocracy was against the Byzantines whereas the other party had its roots
to the nation that was forming by mixing the Slavic population with the
popular bulgaric classes. Because of this crisis the Bulgarians weakened and
that the Byzantine state became stronger in the area but the emperor did not
manage to abolish the Bulgarian state.
Bulgaria under Croumos.
Bulgaria became stronger during the 9th century
when it added ex Abaric land to the state. Under the leadership of Croumos
Sofia had been conquered. The emperor Nikiforos A’ tried to face the
Bulgarians in their areas but he was defeated, his army was destroyed and he
died at the battlefield. Croumos turned towards the Black Sea and managed to
take many ports in the area. He even threatened Constantinople. When Croumos
died suddenly on 814 his heir Omourtag signed a 30 year treaty with the
Byzantines and thus the area remained peaceful until the end of the century.
How was the Bulgaric state organized?
Two different races constituted the population of the
Bulgaric state: The Bulgarians and the Slavs. The state was thus organized
accordingly: The leader and the Bulgarian aristocracy defined the state’s
policy, whereas the Slavs kept certain independence in their areas and they
participated to the administration up to a point. During the 9th
century the central government was strengthened and the leaders of the
Slavic tribes lost their power. On the other hand the Slavs were more, so
they assimilated the Bulgarians. The Slavs were politically subjected to the
Bulgarians but they assimilated them as a nation.